In 1861, Joseph Goiffon, a missionary at Pembina, wrote that a Dakota runner passed through the area on his way to the western plains with a war summons in preparation for a conflict with the Americans.
- From Assassination of Hole-in-the-Day, by Anton Treuer
In the above-quoted book, Professor Treuer tells how there were concurrent uprisings, but their methods were different. Where the Dakota decided to fight back due the injustices against them, the Ojibwe tried an overall more peaceful path. The result for each was that the Dakota had loss of life in the fighting, and the biggest mass execution in U.S. history, while the Ojibwe experienced no loss of life and received some concessions from US Government that they were after.